Posts Tagged With: Aquaculture

Shrimp Aquaculture – Part 2


In general, there are four different shrimp aquaculture practices, i.e. traditional or which also known as extensive farms, semi-intensive, intensive and ultra-intensive or fully integrated system, in Indonesia something like Tambak Inti Rakyat. Basically, these four categories are divided according to their stocking densities and management arrangements. In Indonesia, the majority of farmers apply to traditional/extensive but the production level is less than semi-intensive and intensive farmers. One of the reasons is the traditional / extensive farms rely on natural conditions and no fertilizer. However at this time there is also an extensive farms started using fertilizer so their productivity also improved.

The table below provides an overview of the differences for the three production techniques that are based on the results of field assessment and information from various sources:




Pond size (ha)

1 – 10

1 – 2

0.1 – 1


Natural & artificial



Stocking density (per m²)

1 – 3

3 – 10

10 – 50

Seed source

Wild & hatchery

Wild & hatchery




Natural & Formulated



No & yes







Diversity of crops Monoculture & polyculture with fish (e.g. milkfish)



An overview of traditional farmers / extensive

They usually construct large pond in coastal areas. Most of them learn self-taught, only a few trained on aquaculture practices. These farmers, individual or family group used their own capital because lack of access for credit. Operational cost not so high because they hire only few labors to help.  Often mangrove forest or salt flats they are using for pond construction.  Water exchanges usually rely on high tide conditions, this makes the ponds quite vulnerable if the weather is bad (flooding or excessive rainfall). Real traditional farmers, they are completely dependent on natural tidal entry for seed, feed and water exchange.

An overview of semi-intensive farms

In general, the operational cost is higher than extensive farms because of they have more employees and need to buy aerator and so on. We can say that semi-intensive pond is improvement of extensive ponds, water treatment is better, they are using water pump.  With higher stocking rates than extensive, farmers are dependent on formulated feeds to augment natural food on the ponds.

An overview of Intensive Farms

Required high capital because they have to make the construction of ponds and buy all the necessary equipment and manpower skilled in the shrimp aquaculture. Intensive farming conducted in small pond with high stocking densities as well as high inputs of formulated feeds.  Aerator makes the addition of oxygen to the water which allows higher stocking and feeding levels, therefore the production is high. However, the risk of disease can also be a serious problem in intensive farming, for example if water is taken from one pond to another for reused.

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Shrimp Aquaculture – Part 1

In the previous post, we have seen one of the aquaculture commodities is shrimp. This time I will try to write about this subject because shrimp is one of the most popular seafood products and as well as one of the most traded products from aquaculture. Even shrimp aquaculture is currently the fastest growing food production sector in the world.

Shrimp is very well known. There are several kinds of shrimp, but I guess what familiar to us are whiteleg shrimp (penaeus vannamei or currently called litopenaeus vannamei), black tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon) and giant river prawn galah (macrobrachium resenbergii de man). White shrimp and black tiger shrimp are actually marine animals but with improvement of technology finally can be done in brackish water. And giant prawn from fresh water, we usually called river prawn.


At this time, I will more focusing on whiteleg shrimp (P. vannamei) and black tiger shrimp (P. monodon) because these two types of shrimp are the most consumed and traded. Next time, I will try to write more on giant river prawn.

Black tiger shrimp relatively in big size, however the production in the world has decreased due to the outbreak diseases such as White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) dan Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV), therefore this type of shrimp gain a higher price in the market. This shrimp also known as a “lazy” shrimp, they prefer to be in the bottom of the pond and rarely move around so they are vulnerable to disease. Broodstock of this shrimp may be obtained from the wild or from the ponds. Due to the economical consideration, shrimp farmers mostly prefer to use broodstock from the wild. Wild broodstock give a faster turnover to farmers and produce in 4 – 8 weeks the same of larvae that ponds broodstock can yield in 8 – 12 weeks. Also pond stock requires a maturation pellet often not commercially available in addition to natural food such as squid, mussel and trash fish, whereas wild broodstock can be maintained in natural food alone.

Whiteleg shrimp smaller than black tiger shrimp, however this type is the most widely produced today because even though the price is lower than black tiger shrimp, but this shrimp has a pretty good market and relatively stable. Whiteleg shrimp also “stronger” than black tiger shrimp because they are “quite active” and not easy to “stress”. Broodstock of this shrimp may also be obtained from the wild or from the ponds. Actually broodstock from the wild is better than from the ponds, however due to the consideration of water contamination resulted farmers to use broodstock from the ponds. A good broodstock must meet the criteria of SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) and SPR (Specific Pathogen Resistant).  These two criteria to detect pathogens in the carrier state before the onset of disease.


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More on Aquaculture

Aquaculture development is currently quite rapidly even we can say aquaculture is the fastest growing agriculture production sector in the world, it can be seen from the increased production, market demand and many technologies developed to increase production in the sector. Aquaculture has high capacity to provide employment. In 2011, total 3,343,934 of workers with 10.08% increasing average in 5 years for this sector in Indonesia. (Source: Marine & Fisheries Statistics 2011, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia)

Sejarah budidaya

Actually, aquaculture is done from ancient times. Since 2000 BC and Tang Dynasty in China about the 5th century BC became a milestone for the development of aquaculture. Aquaculture continues to grow and spread to Japan, Europe, America, Australia and Asia. In this 21st century, of course, aquaculture much more developed and technology used is far more sophisticated.

Now, we may wonder, what are the commodities included in aquaculture. The numbers are quite a lot, however, the commodities that we commonly know such as shrimps, groupers, nile tilapia, common carp, barramundi, pangas cat fish, cat fish, giant gouramy, mud crab, shells, and seaweeds.

And then, the next question is how to do this aquaculture? In general, aquaculture can be run  in six types of farming, namely:

  1. Marine culture
  2. Brackish water pond
  3. Fresh water pond
  4. Cage
  5. Floating net
  6. Paddy field

Today, aquaculture production accounts for over a quarter of total world fish production. Taking into consideration of total production, numbers of employment and income, thus making aquaculture is an important contributor to food security.


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A Glance on the Aquaculture

First of all, I apologize if there are shortcomings or errors in my writing about aquaculture because frankly, I started to learn this issue since last year. I am looking forward your feedback and criticism to the writings that I will make in the aquaculture section.


What is aquaculture? Maybe same question came in our minds when we hear about it. Ordinary people like us generally just aware about saltwater fish or freshwater fish, and other seafood such as shrimp, clams, crab, squid, etc. We may think that all fish and the seafood came from fishermen who daily work to catch fish and other seafood.

Actually, if we want to explore further, in outline, a fishery is divided into two categories, namely capture fisheries and aquaculture.

Capture fisheries in general is a way to get fish (including seafood) from the sea or waters (waters that are not cultivated/aquaculture) by using a tool or other means.

Aquaculture in general is fish (including seafood) that obtained by means of culture (nurture, rearing or breeding and harvesting).

Below are some definitions of aquaculture that we can use as a reference:

Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1988)

Aquaculture is activity to maintain, rearing, and / or breed fish and harvest their products in a controlled environment, including activities that use the vessel for loading, transporting, storing, cooling, handling, processing, and / or preserve. (Indonesian Act Number 31 Year 2004)

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Sekilas tentang Perikanan Budidaya

Pertama-tama saya mohon maaf jika ada kekurangan atau kesalahan dalam penulisan saya tentang perikanan budidaya karena terus terang saya baru belajar tentang  hal ini kurang lebih satu tahun. Saya mengharapkan masukan dan kritik dari pembaca untuk tulisan-tulisan yang akan saya muat dalam bagian perikanan budidaya ini.


Apa sih perikanan budidaya itu? Mungkin itu yang ada di benak kita ketika mendengar tentang hal ini. Kita masyarakat awam umumnya mengetahui jenis ikan air laut dan ikan air tawar, serta makanan laut lainnya seperti udang, kerang, kepiting, cumi-cumi dan sebagainya. Kita mungkin berpikir bahwa sumber dari semua makanan laut tersebut adalah nelayan yang sehari-harinya bekerja untuk menangkap ikan dan makanan laut lainnya.

Sebenarnya, kalau kita mau menelusuri lebih jauh, secara garis besar, perikanan terbagi atas dua kategori, yaitu perikanan tangkap dan perikanan budidaya.

Perikanan tangkap secara garis besar adalah cara mendapatkan ikan (termasuk makanan laut lainnya) dari laut atau perairan (yang bukan perairan budidaya) dengan menggunakan alat atau cara lainnya.

Perikanan budidaya secara garis besar adalah ikan (termasuk makanan laut lainnya) yang didapat dengan cara budidaya (memelihara, membesarkan/membiakkan serta memanen).

Berikut adalah beberapa pengertian perikanan budidaya yang bisa kita pakai sebagai acuan:

Perikanan budidaya adalah budidaya organisme air, termasuk ikan, moluska, kurstasea dan tanaman air. Pembudidayaan ini meliputi beberapa bentuk kegiatan dalam proses pemeliharaan untuk meningkatkan produksi, seperti penebaran yang teratur, pemberian makanan/pakan, perlidungan dari predator dan lain-lain. (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1988)

Pembudidayaan ikan adalah kegiatan untuk memelihara, membesarkan, dan/atau membiakkan ikan serta memanen hasilnya dalam lingkungan yang terkontrol, termasuk kegiatan yang menggunakan kapal untuk memuat, mengangkut, menyimpan, mendinginkan, menangani, mengolah, dan/atau mengawetkannya. (Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 31 Tahun 2004)

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