Monthly Archives: July 2013

Lessons Learned from Flash Flood in Maluku Province – Indonesia

Way Ela dam, about two kilometers away from Negeri Lima village, Central Maluku, broke on Thursday, July 25, 2013. The broken dam caused ten-meter flood and swept away 470 houses, five schools, two praying rooms, one health care center, one village cooperative unit, one bridge, two clean water facilities and one telecommunication tower. As of today, it is reported that three persons missing, eight severely injured, 24 minor injured and 5,223 people were evacuated to various locations.

Maluku governor has declared 14 days for emergency response phase, started from July 25 – August 8, 2013. Main focus during this phase is the search of missing people and relief distribution of basic needs.

Way ela

Way Ela is a natural dam made in July 13, 2012 because of landslides that closed river stream in Negeri Lima village, Leyhitu sub-district, Central Maluku district, Maluku province. The size of the dam is 1,100 meters long, 300 meters wide, 215 meters high and 35 meters deep. Many argue that the thickness of the dam is good enough. However, the fact showed that the thickness is not a guarantee. Due to the heavy rain, the dam completely broke at around 12:25pm local time on Thursday, July 25, 2013 and five minutes later about 19.8M m3 of water swiped Negeri Lima village which located about 2.25 KM from the dam.

The survival of thousands of people from Negeri Lima village could not be separated from the government’s efforts in conducting evacuation simulation to prepare local communities at any time if this natural dam broke.

There are several lessons learned from this experience:

What worked well?

  1. Early warning system runs well. When the dam was in critical condition one day before on Wednesday, July 24, 2013, warning alerts was sounded and government instructed local communities to go to the evacuation centers that have been provided.
  2. The government through BNPB (National Disaster Management Office) and BPBDs (Provincial and District Disaster Management Offices) provided good facilitation and support to the affected people as soon as possible.
  3. The governor led the emergency response and provided full support to the affected people.
  4. Preparedness trainings for floods have been conducted, therefore, local communities aware when evacuation should be started.

Highlights of what to do next time:

  1. The government needs to review again whether the dam construction is in accordance with the needs. Extreme weather / climate change should be taken into consideration.
  2. The government should find a way to relocate local communities who live too close to the danger zones.
  3. Community awareness on disaster preparedness needs to be strengthened and should be the responsibility of all stakeholders includes community itself. Three persons missing suspected because they were running late to the evacuation centers.
Advertisements
Categories: Disaster Management | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Stato della Città del Vaticano

 Vatican1 Vatican2
 Vatican3  Vatican4
 Vatican5  Vatican6
Categories: Photos | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

Congrats Chelsea!

The Blues beating BNI Indonesia team by impressive score last Thursday, July 25. Indonesia team stated the game brightly, however, slowly the Blues managed to get chances and went ahead with victory.  In front of Indonesian 80,000 fans of the Blues at Jakarta’s GBK stadium, Chelsea showed a very good game. Although the Indonesian team lost but it was not too disappointing, we knew from the beginning that it is almost impossible Indonesian team can beat Chelsea. Indonesian players do not have the “flying hours and experience” comparable with the players from Chelsea.

Mouriho and Rahmat Dharmawan

We thank to the captain J. Terry and all players that showed us a very good football game.  We thank to the coach, J. Mourinho that showed us a very good tactics.

Hopefully, someday, Indonesian players as well as the coaches will be like all of you.

Terry

Categories: Intermezzo | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Internet di Indonesia Bakal Disurvei

Doar Info

Mudah-mudahan internet bisa menjangkau seluruh pelosok di Indonesia setelah survei ini dilakukan.

Badan Pusat Statistik menandatangani nota kesepahaman dan perjanjian kerja sama dengan Asosiasi Penyelenggara Jasa Internet Indonesia (APJII), untuk melakukan survei penggunaan internet di sektor bisnis, Kamis (25/7/2013).

Misi survei ini adalah menghasilkan data tentang pertumbuhan penggunaan dan penyerapan sarana komunikasi dan teknologi informasi di sektor bisnis. Dalam kerjasama ini, APJII akan terlibat dalam hal perencanaan. Sementara pengolahan data dan pelaksanaan teknis di lapangan akan dilakukan oleh BPS.

View original post 135 more words

Categories: Intermezzo | Leave a comment

Shrimp Aquaculture – Part 2

Shrimp

In general, there are four different shrimp aquaculture practices, i.e. traditional or which also known as extensive farms, semi-intensive, intensive and ultra-intensive or fully integrated system, in Indonesia something like Tambak Inti Rakyat. Basically, these four categories are divided according to their stocking densities and management arrangements. In Indonesia, the majority of farmers apply to traditional/extensive but the production level is less than semi-intensive and intensive farmers. One of the reasons is the traditional / extensive farms rely on natural conditions and no fertilizer. However at this time there is also an extensive farms started using fertilizer so their productivity also improved.

The table below provides an overview of the differences for the three production techniques that are based on the results of field assessment and information from various sources:

Traditional/Extensive

Semi-intensive

Intensive

Pond size (ha)

1 – 10

1 – 2

0.1 – 1

Stock

Natural & artificial

Artificial

Artificial

Stocking density (per m²)

1 – 3

3 – 10

10 – 50

Seed source

Wild & hatchery

Wild & hatchery

Hatchery

Feed

Natural

Natural & Formulated

Formulated

Fertilizer

No & yes

Yes

Yes

Aeration

No

Yes

Yes

Diversity of crops Monoculture & polyculture with fish (e.g. milkfish)

Monoculture

Monoculture

An overview of traditional farmers / extensive

They usually construct large pond in coastal areas. Most of them learn self-taught, only a few trained on aquaculture practices. These farmers, individual or family group used their own capital because lack of access for credit. Operational cost not so high because they hire only few labors to help.  Often mangrove forest or salt flats they are using for pond construction.  Water exchanges usually rely on high tide conditions, this makes the ponds quite vulnerable if the weather is bad (flooding or excessive rainfall). Real traditional farmers, they are completely dependent on natural tidal entry for seed, feed and water exchange.

An overview of semi-intensive farms

In general, the operational cost is higher than extensive farms because of they have more employees and need to buy aerator and so on. We can say that semi-intensive pond is improvement of extensive ponds, water treatment is better, they are using water pump.  With higher stocking rates than extensive, farmers are dependent on formulated feeds to augment natural food on the ponds.

An overview of Intensive Farms

Required high capital because they have to make the construction of ponds and buy all the necessary equipment and manpower skilled in the shrimp aquaculture. Intensive farming conducted in small pond with high stocking densities as well as high inputs of formulated feeds.  Aerator makes the addition of oxygen to the water which allows higher stocking and feeding levels, therefore the production is high. However, the risk of disease can also be a serious problem in intensive farming, for example if water is taken from one pond to another for reused.

Categories: Aquaculture, Intermezzo | Tags: , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Budidaya Udang – Bagian 2

Shrimp

Secara garis besar, ada empat teknik produksi untuk budidaya udang, yaitu tradisional atau yang dikenal juga dengan nama ekstensif, semi-intensif, intensif dan ultra-intensif atau yang dikenal juga dengan nama fully-integrated system, yang di Indonesia kita kenal dengan nama Tambak Inti Rakyat. Pada dasarnya penentuan teknik produksi ini ditentukan oleh banyaknya penyebaran benih dan sistem manajemennya. Di Indonesia sendiri saat ini sebenarnya yang paling banyak adalah petambak tradisional / ekstensif, namun jumlah produksinya jauh lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan yang semi-intesif dan intensif. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah petambak tradisional / ekstensif sangat bergantung pada alam dan tidak ada pemberantasan hama sehingga produktivitasnya rendah. Namun pada saat ini sudah ada juga petambak tradisional yang mulai memakai pupuk di tambaknya sehingga produktivitasnya agak sedikit meningkat.

Tabel di bawah ini memberikan gambaran umum perbedaan untuk tiga teknik produksi yang dibuat berdasarkan hasil kajian lapangan dan informasi dari berbagai sumber:

Tradisional/Ekstensif

Semi-intensif

Intensif

Ukuran kolam (ha)

1 – 10

1 – 2

0,1 – 1

Benur

Alami & buatan

Buatan

Buatan

Padat tebar (per m²)

1 – 3

3 – 10

10 – 50

Asal benih

Tangkapan & hatchery

Tangkapan & hatchery

Hatchery

Pakan

Alami

Alami & formula

Formula

Pupuk

Tidak & pakai

Pakai

Pakai

Aerator

Tidak

Pakai

Pakai

Keragaman Monokultur & polikultur dengan ikan (misalnya bandeng)

Monokultur

Monokultur

Gambaran umum petambak tradisional atau ekstensif

Petambak tradisional biasanya membuat tambaknya di daerah pesisir. Kebanyakan dari mereka belajar cara bertambak secara otodidak, hanya sedikit yang pernah mengikuti pelatihan. Modal untuk usaha tambak biasanya dari modal sendiri karena susah atau tidak punya akses untuk mendapatkan pinjaman dari bank. Biaya operasional yang dibutuhkan juga tidak terlalu besar karena tidak terlalu banyak memakai tenaga kerja dan peralatan. Karena tidak memakai aerator, biasanya pertukaran air bergantung pada kondisi air pasang. Keadaan ini membuat kolam mereka cukup rentan jika cuaca buruk (banjir atau curah hujan yang berlebihan). Petambak yang benar-benar tradisional menggunakan benih dan pakan dari alam, sedangkan yang sudah masuk kategori ekstensif memakai benih dari alam dan hatchery.

Gambaran umum petambak semi-intensif

Secara garis besar biaya operasional petambak ini lebih besar dari petambak ekstensif karena jumlah pekerjanya lebih banyak, harus membeli bahan bakar untuk aerator dan sebagainya. Boleh dikatakan tambak semi-intensif adalah perbaikan dari tambak ekstensif, pengolahan airnya lebih baik, jika air pasang naik sebagian air kolam digantikan dengan air baru sehingga kualitas airnya lebih terjaga. Karena padat tebarnya lebih besar dari ekstensif, maka dibutuhkan pakan yang diformulasikan untuk meningkatkan makanan alami di kolam.

Gambaran umum petambak intensif

Petambak jenis ini membutuhkan modal yang cukup besar karena harus membuat konstruksi untuk kolam dan membeli semua peralatan yang dibutuhkan serta tenaga kerja yang ahli di bidangnya. Dengan ukuran kolam yang tidak terlalu besar dan padat tebar yang cukup banyak serta pakan dan pengaturan air yang baik maka produksi pun akan lebih besar. Namun ada juga risiko penyebaran penyakit yang cukup tinggi jika pengaturan airnya kurang baik, misalnya air dipindahkan/digunakan kembali dari satu kolam ke kolam lain.

Categories: Budidaya Perikanan | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Blog at WordPress.com.