Aquaculture development is currently quite rapidly even we can say aquaculture is the fastest growing agriculture production sector in the world, it can be seen from the increased production, market demand and many technologies developed to increase production in the sector. Aquaculture has high capacity to provide employment. In 2011, total 3,343,934 of workers with 10.08% increasing average in 5 years for this sector in Indonesia. (Source: Marine & Fisheries Statistics 2011, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia)
Actually, aquaculture is done from ancient times. Since 2000 BC and Tang Dynasty in China about the 5th century BC became a milestone for the development of aquaculture. Aquaculture continues to grow and spread to Japan, Europe, America, Australia and Asia. In this 21st century, of course, aquaculture much more developed and technology used is far more sophisticated.
Now, we may wonder, what are the commodities included in aquaculture. The numbers are quite a lot, however, the commodities that we commonly know such as shrimps, groupers, nile tilapia, common carp, barramundi, pangas cat fish, cat fish, giant gouramy, mud crab, shells, and seaweeds.
And then, the next question is how to do this aquaculture? In general, aquaculture can be run in six types of farming, namely:
- Marine culture
- Brackish water pond
- Fresh water pond
- Floating net
- Paddy field
Today, aquaculture production accounts for over a quarter of total world fish production. Taking into consideration of total production, numbers of employment and income, thus making aquaculture is an important contributor to food security.